We identify the causative allergens by Skin and blood tests. First line of management is simply avoiding the allergen in question or otherwise reducing exposure. For instance, people with cat allergies were encouraged to avoid them. However, while avoidance of allergens may reduce symptoms and avoid life-threatening anaphylaxis, it is difficult to achieve for those with pollen or similar air-borne allergies. Nonetheless, strict avoidance of allergens is still considered a useful treatment method, and is often used in managing food allergies.
Several antagonistic drugs are used to block the action of allergic mediators, or to prevent activation of cells and degranulation processes. These include antihistamines, glucocorticoids, epinephrine (adrenaline), theophylline and cromolyn sodium and Anti-leukotriene. These drugs help to alleviate the symptoms of allergy, and are imperative in the recovery of acute anaphylaxis, but play little role in chronic treatment of allergic disorders.
Sublingual immunotherapy, is an orally-administered therapy which takes advantage of oral immune tolerance to non-pathogenic antigens such as foods and resident bacteria. This therapy currently accounts for 40 percent of allergy treatment in Europe Desensitization or hyposensitization is done by giving progressively larger concentration of the allergen in question. This can either reduce the severity or eliminate hypersensitivity altogether. It relies on the progressive skewing of IgG antibody production, to block excessive IgE production seen in atopys. In a sense, the person builds up immunity to increasing amounts of the allergen in question. Studies have demonstrated the long-term efficacy and the preventive effect of immunotherapy in reducing the development of new allergy.
Put your mattresses in airtight covers. Tape over the length of the zipper. Rubber mattresses are best as the mites cannot penetrate.
Put pillows in airtight covers. Tape over the length of the zipper. Or wash your pillows every week. Polyester filling is best for pillows and duvets – avoid feathers or down.
Wash all bedding every week in water that is at least 130 degrees F. Removing the bedspread at night may help if it is one that is not regularly washed.
Don't sleep or lie down on upholstered (stuffed) furniture.
Remove carpeting in the bedroom, indeed the whole house if possible.
Clean up surface dust as often as possible. Use a damp mop or damp cloth when you clean rather than a feather duster that just distributes the dust throughout the room.
Don't use aerosols or spray cleaners if they can be avoided. Don't clean or vacuum the room when someone with asthma or allergies is present.
Children's stuffed toys are rich environments for dust mite populations. Limit the number of toys and clean them regularly.
Window coverings attract dust. Use window shades or curtains made of plastic or other washable material for easy cleaning.
Remove stuffed furniture and stuffed animals (unless the animals can be washed), and anything under the bed. Vacuum under the bed.
Closets need extra care. They should hold only needed clothing. Putting clothes in a plastic garment bag may help.
Particularly clean on top of closets where dust collects.
Dust mites like moisture and high humidity. Cutting down the humidity in your home can cut down the number of mites. A dehumidifier may help. Adequate ventilation is now considered to be extremely important.
Use a High Efficiency Particulate Arresting (HEPA) vacuum cleaner or one with a power head, which picks up three to six times as much dust as one without power brushes.